Protein Preparation

Protein preparation is the process of transforming a macromolecular structure into a form more suitable for a computational experiment. The specific set of tasks required depends on the experiment and the source of the structure. Tools for several common prep tasks are described below. For a demonstration of how these can be combined, see the Preparing a Protein example.

Processing Alternate Locations

Protein structures rarely describe whole molecules. Instead, they are usually missing atoms that could not be resolved well. In addition, many structures contain multiple copies of atoms called alternate (“alt”) locations or alternate conformations that can indicate that part of the structure is moving. As the resolution of X-ray crystal structures improves, alt locations can be expected to become ubiquitous. These conformations are indexed by an ID character such as A or B that is stored in the residue information for that atom (see Biopolymer Residues).

Having extra copies of atoms can interfere with some experiments, such as docking. One way to handle this is to eliminate all but one conformation. By default, OEChem drops all but the A or blank conformations when reading atoms in a PDB format file. To prevent this, the file must be read with the OEIFlavor.PDB.ALTLOC flavor.

Listing 1: Setting the PDB Flavor to Retain All Alts

oemolistream ims = new oemolistream();
ims.SetFlavor(OEFormat.PDB, OEIFlavor.PDB.ALTLOC);

Another way to drop all but one conformation is to use the OEAltLocationFactory object (see the Alternate Locations section) and generate, for example, a molecule that retains only the highest occupancy conformation of each location group. This object can be used to iterate through each combination of alt locations (for example, when a group is moving in an active site).

Listing 2: Keeping the Highest Occupancy Alt Locations

OEAltLocationFactory alf = new OEAltLocationFactory(mol);
if (alf.GetGroupCount() != 0)
    alf.MakePrimaryAltMol(mol);

Adding Hydrogens and Optimizing Hydrogen Bonds

Traditionally, most protein structures have been generated with either no explicit hydrogens or only polar hydrogens. However, having all atoms explicitly represented and positioned to make appropriate hydrogen bonds is sometimes necessary. The function OEPlaceHydrogens does this by adding and placing hydrogens and by “flipping” certain functional groups (e.g., sidechain amides and imidazoles) as required.

../_images/1eocN403FLIPS405.png

Asparagine has been flipped and serine oriented to H-bond with main-chain atoms

Listing 3: Adding and Optimizing the Positions of Hydrogens

if (OEBio.OEPlaceHydrogens(mol))
{
    // ...

There are several OEPlaceHydrogensOptions parameters that control the process. For example, it is possible to prevent the bond lengths of any covalent bonds to pre-existing hydrogens from being altered:

Listing 4: Setting Options for Placing Hydrogens

OEPlaceHydrogensOptions opt = new OEPlaceHydrogensOptions();
opt.SetStandardizeBondLen(false);

There are also OEPlaceHydrogensOptions parameters for restraining which states a mover group is sampled over. Listing 5 shows a predicate for identifying atoms belonging to a specific residue.

Listing 5: Predicate for Residue Equivalence

private class IsSameResidue : OEUnaryAtomPred
{
    private OEResidue referenceResidue;

    public IsSameResidue(OEResidue res)
    {
        referenceResidue = new OEResidue(res);
    }

    public override bool Call(OEAtomBase atom)
    {
        OEResidue res = OEChem.OEAtomGetResidue(atom);
        return OEChem.OESameResidue(res, referenceResidue);
    }

    public override OEUnaryAtomBoolFunc CreateCopy()
    {
        OEUnaryAtomBoolFunc copy = new IsSameResidue(referenceResidue);
        copy.ReleaseOwnership();
        return copy;
    }
}

We can use that predicate to prevent a selected residue from flipping:

Listing 6: Preventing a Residue from Flipping

// given predicate IsSameResidue, residue selectedResidue and molecule mol...
OEPlaceHydrogensOptions opt = new OEPlaceHydrogensOptions();
opt.SetNoFlipPredicate(new IsSameResidue(selectedResidue));

if (OEBio.OEPlaceHydrogens(mol, opt))
{
    // selectedResidue will not be flipped...

Using an OEPlaceHydrogensDetails object enables examination of the results, showing the clusters of movable groups explored and the scores. A simple way to get at this information is to display a summary description:

Listing 7: Examining the Details of Placing Hydrogens

// given molecule mol and OEPlaceHydrogensOptions opt...
OEPlaceHydrogensDetails details = new OEPlaceHydrogensDetails();
if (OEBio.OEPlaceHydrogens(mol, details, opt))
    Console.WriteLine(details.Describe());

The following is a fragment from a details object description:

OEBio 2.1.1: score system MMFF-NIE: flip bias 2.000
87 clusters : 5 flips
cluster 0  : score -53.935!
             CG  ASN44(A)   :      amide:   -6.084  (o=-53.93!,f=-8.42!)
             NZ  LYS47(A)   : NH3 150deg:  -14.865
             CG  HIS80(A)   :    +bothHN:   -5.628  (o=-53.93!,f=-15.89!)
             OG1 THR81(A)   : OH   65deg:    1.255
             CD  GLN87(A)   :FLIP  amide:   -4.976  (o=-26.48!,f=-53.93!)
             CG  ASN126(A)  :      amide:   -5.193  (o=-53.93!,f=-35.33!)
             CG  ASN169(A)  :      amide:   -2.230  (o=-53.93!,f=-33.02!)
             CD  GLN203(A)  :      amide:   -1.400  (o=-53.93!,f=-15.53!)
             CG  HIS205(A)  :    +bothHN:   -8.693! (o=-53.93!,f=-6.89!)
             OG1 THR232(A)  : OH  179deg:    9.120
             O3B XYP601(A)  : OH  280deg:   -5.020
             O2B XYP601(A)  : OH  173deg:    3.917
             O4B XYP601(A)  : OH   50deg:    1.236
             O3  XIF602(A)  : OH   29deg:   -3.688
cluster 1  : score -85.724!
             CG  HIS85(A)   :    +bothHN:   -7.737! (o=-85.72!,f=-84.85!)
             OG  SER86(A)   : OH  241deg:    2.116
             OG  SER139(A)  : OH  185deg:    3.367!
             OH  TYR171(A)  : OH   25deg:   -3.384
             CG  ASN172(A)  :      amide:    1.153  (o=-85.72!,f=-68.75!)
             NZ  LYS179(A)  : NH3 188deg:  -39.497
...
single  13 : OG1 THR2(A)    : OH  151deg:    1.545
single  14 : OG  SER25(A)   : OH  292deg:    2.046
single  15 : OH  TYR29(A)   : OH  199deg:   -1.262
single  16 : OG  SER35(A)   : OH  254deg:    1.935
...

See also

Splitting Macromolecular Complexes

One common step in preparing a macromolecular complex for use as input to a calculation is to separate components based on their functional roles. For example, a SZMAP calculation on a four-chain protein crystal structure might require one of four copies of the ligand to be extracted and the protein-complex associated with that ligand binding site to be separately extracted, ignoring any waters, buffers, etc.

Listing 8 uses the OESplitMolComplex function to separate the input molecule into the ligand for the first binding site, the protein-complex (including cofactors) for that site, the binding site waters, and everything else. In this example, the ligand is identified automatically and the binding site contains components near the ligand. If a ligand cannot be located, the entirety of each protein and everything nearby defines each binding site. If the input molecule is empty or there is some other problem that prevents processing, OESplitMolComplex will return false.

Listing 8: Splitting an Input Molecule

// for input molecule inmol ...
OEGraphMol lig   = new OEGraphMol();
OEGraphMol prot  = new OEGraphMol();
OEGraphMol wat   = new OEGraphMol();
OEGraphMol other = new OEGraphMol();

if (OEBio.OESplitMolComplex(lig, prot, wat, other, inmol))
    //work with the output molecules lig, prot, ...

Listing 8 uses the defaults, so no attempt would be made to recognize covalent ligands. Listing 9 uses an option to turn on the splitting of covalent ligands. There are a large number of options to control the process of splitting a molecule. See OESplitMolComplexOptions for a complete list.

Listing 9: Splitting Covalent Ligands

// given input and output molecules ...
OESplitMolComplexOptions opt = new OESplitMolComplexOptions();
opt.SetSplitCovalent();

if (OEBio.OESplitMolComplex(lig, prot, wat, other, inmol, opt))
    // ...

A related approach uses OEGetMolComplexComponents to return an iterator of molecules. Listing 10 also illustrates providing an explicit ligand residue name that must match for the ligand to be identified.

Listing 10: Iterating Over Split Components

// for input molecule mol and string ligName ...
OESplitMolComplexOptions opt = new OESplitMolComplexOptions(ligName);

foreach (OEMolBase frag in OEBio.OEGetMolComplexComponents(mol, opt))
{
    // ...

The process used by the OESplitMolComplex and OEGetMolComplexComponents functions involves two steps:

  1. separating components and assigning functional roles
  2. filtering by roles to select the desired components

OESplitMolComplex accesses separate filters for lig, prot, wat, and other from the OESplitMolComplexOptions object. In OEGetMolComplexComponents, the combination of the ligand, protein, and water filters is used to select the output components. The options method OESplitMolComplexOptions.ResetFilters can be used for basic changes to the filters, such as selecting a different binding site (see Listing 11).

Listing 11: Resetting Filters for All Sites

OESplitMolComplexOptions opt = new OESplitMolComplexOptions();
uint allSites = 0;
opt.ResetFilters(allSites);

The function OECountMolComplexSites returns the number of binding sites.

Listing 12 shows a more involved case, combining protein-complex and binding-site waters into the protein filter and nothing in the water filter.

Listing 12: Modifying Filters

OESplitMolComplexOptions opt = new OESplitMolComplexOptions();
OEUnaryRoleSetPred p = opt.GetProteinFilter();
OEUnaryRoleSetPred w = opt.GetWaterFilter();
opt.SetProteinFilter(new OEOrRoleSet(p, w));

opt.SetWaterFilter(
     OEBio.OEMolComplexFilterFactory(OEMolComplexFilterCategory.Nothing));

Listing 13 illustrates using an explicit filter when iterating. OEMolComplexFilter objects can be of arbitrary complexity.

Listing 13: Explicit Filter When Iterating

// for input molecule mol and options opt ...
foreach (OEMolBase l in
               OEBio.OEGetMolComplexComponents(mol,
                                               opt,
                                               opt.GetLigandFilter()))
{
    // ...

For more complex workflows, it is useful to explicitly separate the tasks of assigning roles and filtering, if only to avoid the expense of assigning roles multiple times. Listing 14 shows how to assign roles to each fragment in a molecule for later use.

Listing 14: Assigning Roles to Each Mol Fragment

        // for input molecule mol and options opt ...
        OEAtomBondSetVector frags = new OEAtomBondSetVector();

        if (OEBio.OEGetMolComplexFragments(frags, mol, opt))
        {
            //...

In Listing 15, the role information for each fragment is used to determine the number of binding sites and is filtered to produce ligand and protein complex mols.

Listing 15: Filtering Mol Fragments

        // for options opt and OEAtomBondSetVector frags produced earlier ...
        uint numSites = OEBio.OECountMolComplexSites(frags);
        OEChem.OEThrow.Verbose("sites " + numSites);

        OEGraphMol lig = new OEGraphMol();
        OEUnaryRoleSetPred l = opt.GetLigandFilter();
        if (! OEBio.OECombineMolComplexFragments(lig, frags, opt, l))
            OEChem.OEThrow.Warning("Unable to collect ligand from " +
                                    mol.GetTitle());

        OEGraphMol protComplex = new OEGraphMol();
        OEUnaryRoleSetPred p = opt.GetProteinFilter();
        OEUnaryRoleSetPred w = opt.GetWaterFilter();
        if (! OEBio.OECombineMolComplexFragments(protComplex,
                                                 frags,
                                                 opt,
                                                 new OEOrRoleSet(p, w)) )
            OEChem.OEThrow.Warning("Unable to collect complex from " +
                                    mol.GetTitle());

The basic idea behind automatic ligand identification is that the list of compounds that are not ligands (cofactors, buffers, etc.) grows faster than the list of ligands. The OEResidueCategoryData object contained within an OESplitMolComplexOptions is a database of these non-ligands. Although this database is being updated as we run across more cofactors, buffers, etc., it is possible for users to update the database as needed. Listing 16 shows how this is done, involving the Russian nesting doll-like organization of a OEResidueCategoryData within a OEMolComplexCategorizer within a OESplitMolComplexOptions object.

Listing 16: Adding a Cofactor

OEResidueCategoryData db = new OEResidueCategoryData();
db.AddToDB(OEResidueDatabaseCategory.Cofactor, "MTQ");

OEMolComplexCategorizer cat = new OEMolComplexCategorizer();
cat.SetResidueCategoryData(db);

OESplitMolComplexOptions opt = new OESplitMolComplexOptions();
opt.SetCategorizer(cat);

Note

Please help OpenEye maintain and expand the built-in OEResidueCategoryData by informing us of any oversights or mistakes.

The most important OESplitMolComplexOptions parameters can be controlled from the command line using OEConfigureSplitMolComplexOptions and OESplitMolComplexSetup (see Listing 17).

Listing 17: Command Line Options

using System;
using OpenEye.OEChem;
using OpenEye.OEBio;

public class SplitMolComplexDoc
{
    public static int Main(string[] argv)
    {
        OEInterface itf = new OEInterface(interfaceData);
        OEBio.OEConfigureSplitMolComplexOptions(itf);

        if (!OEChem.OEParseCommandLine(itf, argv, "SplitMolComplex"))
            OEChem.OEThrow.Fatal("Unable to interpret command line!");

        OESplitMolComplexOptions opts = new OESplitMolComplexOptions();
        OEBio.OESetupSplitMolComplexOptions(opts, itf);